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The Republic of Peru is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the south and west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. At 1.28 million square kilometres, Peru is the 19th-largest country in the world, and the third-largest in South America. Peru has a population of approximately 33 million as of 2021.

The economy of Peru is the 47th-largest in the world (ranked by Purchasing Power Parity), and the income level is classified as upper middle by the World Bank.

In June 2021, Peru narrowly elected Pedro Castillo as President. Castillo is associated with the left-wing Free Peru National Political Party. The party describes itself as being "a left-wing socialist organization" that embraces Marxism–Leninism and Mariáteguism. It values democracy, decentralization, internationalism, sovereignty, humanism and anti-imperialism. Following his success in the first round of presidential elections in 2021, Pedro Castillo has said that he opposes communism, and has distanced himself from far-leftists in the party. Castillo has also said that he will not seek to nationalize companies and will honour the rule of law, and will reject the policies of Chavismo.

Peru's GDP per capita (PPP) in current international dollars for the year 2019 was estimated as $13,416 by the World Bank.