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What will be the highest US debt-to-GDP ratio by the end of 2023?

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries have enacted stimulus packages that have incurred significant debt at the same time that GDP is shrinking due to the pandemic. Austria and the UK, for example, both expect substantial increases in debt-to-GDP ratio as a result of these two factors.

The United States reached a debt-to-GDP ratio of 118.9% during WWII, which fell sharply afterwards, but has increased in recent decades, to 106.9% in 2019.

What will the US debt-to-GDP ratio be at its maximum between now and the end of 2023?

The question resolves as the highest debt-to-GDP ratio between the opening of this question and the end of 2023, when all values through 2023 have been published by the St. Louis Federal Reserve.


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