Public and private entities have been making advances in efforts to expand humanity's presence in space and establish colonies on other planets. Additionally, humans already have had an extended presence in space through the International Space Station. What future governments and jurisdictions may look like in space and on other planets remains unclear.
When will someone first be convicted for a murder that occurred outside of Earth's atmosphere?
This question resolves as the date a human is first convicted of murder for killing another human while outside of Earth's Karman line. The location of the conviction itself is immaterial, a murder that takes place in space but where the legal proceedings occur on Earth would qualify. For the purposes of this question murder will be defined as an intentional killing, either premeditated or in the heat of the moment, commonly referred to as first or second degree murder. If terminology or legal classifications having to do with murder change the admins will use their judgement to determine if the conviction meets the definition of first or second degree murder at the time this question was authored. Homicide as part of a recognized military action is typically not punishable in a court of law and would not qualify for the purposes of this question.
Both the murderer and the victim must be above the Karman line at the time of the murder to qualify. If a violent attack occurs above the Karman line but the victim later dies on Earth it still qualifies so long as all of the violence inflicted by the perpetrator occurred above the Karman line.
The question resolves ambiguously in case the murder involves a Metaculus user.